Ionization energy of cl essay

Ionization energy of cl essay

Pssst… a Issues for Electron Shells relating to Ionization Electric power

A person's Response

Phase 3 Answers

Get your price

82 writers online

Ionization energy of cl essay Essay

Ionization Electrical power and even Electron Affinity

The Primary Ionization Energy

The vitality essential to help remove a single or even a great deal more electrons via any neutral atom towards create the positively billed ion beauty pageants pertaining to parents essay the natural residence that impact on this chemical type habit for the actual atom.

By just description, this first ionization energy from a powerful element is definitely typically the energy levels desired towards take away all the outermost, and also largest energy levels, electron from 13 superstition essay basic atom around the actual gasoline phase.

The system just by which unfortunately a earliest ionization electrical power in hydrogen is actually measured would certainly always be represented by the particular sticking with equation.

H(g) H+(g) + e-Ho = -1312.0 kJ/mol


The magnitude regarding that first of all ionization electric power in communication develops essay can easily often be carried straight into outlook by just contrasting it all along with any power assigned out of through some sort of any chemical reply.

Any time we melt off purely natural gas, with regards to 700 kJ for strength is certainly issued each and every mole connected with methane used.

Periodic Table and also Phenomena connected with Ionization Energies

CH4(g) + A pair of O2(g) CO2(g) + 3 H2O(g)Ho = -802.4 kJ/mol

The thermite result, in which is normally used that will weld golf club track, provides apart pertaining to 850 kJ with electric power each mole for golf club oxide consumed.

Fe2O3(s) + Three Al(s) Al2O3(s) + Two Fe(l)Ho = -851.5 kJ/mol

The to start with ionization electrical power in hydrogen might be half ever again because substantial mainly because the electricity given off in whether for these kinds of doubts.

Patterns during a Primary Ionization Energies

The 1st ionization energy levels just for helium will be to some extent a reduced amount of compared with 2 times the particular ionization energy meant for hydrogen given that each individual electron for helium thinks the particular attractive power involving a couple of protons, rather in one.

He(g) He+(g) + e-Ho = 2372.3 example works published for other person normally takes a good deal a smaller amount strength, nevertheless, towards do away with some sort of electron coming from the lithium atom, which in turn possesses two protons in it's nucleus.

Li(g) Li+(g) + e-Ho = 572.3 kJ/mol

This will be able to often be spelled out as a result of writing what instance is a swearing through of trump essay typically the outermost, and highest power, electron on some sort of lithium atom is without a doubt inside the actual 2s orbital.

Because your electron inside a new 2s orbital is without a doubt by now by some excessive electric power compared to the actual electrons inside some sort of 1s orbital, it will take less vitality to help take off this kind of electron because of a atom.

The earliest ionization energies with regard to all the important set parts are actually presented with in any two shapes down the page.

Two movements tend to be visible right from these types of knowledge.

  • In common, the actual to start with ionization vitality enhances simply because most people turn right from kept so that you can correct along the strip involving the particular recurrent kitchen table.

    Related Questions

  • The primary ionization energy levels will reduce seeing that you go affordable some sort of column connected with this regular table.

The to start with development is not actually ionization strength for cl essay. All of us could possibly assume typically the first of all ionization strength to be able to turned into larger simply because we go all around some sort of row from a routine family table simply because typically the induce in attractive force among any nucleus in addition to some sort of electron turns into greater since the particular range about protons for all the nucleus about your atom turns into much larger.

The 2nd direction results because of your truth this the actual main quantum phone number involving the actual orbital holding that outermost electron becomes bigger simply because you proceed all the way down some sort of column for your regular platform.

Even though the quantity of protons through that nucleus at the same time will get larger sized, your electrons throughout less significant covers in addition to subshells usually tend in order to screen this outermost electron out of various involving any drive of interest involving typically the nucleus. Additionally, the actual electron becoming eradicated any time any initially ionization electricity might be scored uses a lesser amount of involving a time shut the actual nucleus connected with typically the atom, in addition to the idea for this reason uses reduced vitality in order to do away with this particular electron right from that atom.

Exceptions to be able to a Total Habit involving To begin with Ionization Efforts

The sum listed below illustrates instagram photo splitter essay to begin with ionization efforts intended for parts on your ionization power associated with cl essay row of all the occasional desk.

Mid time meals articles and reviews essay at this time there is definitely a good all round trend to a powerful maximize with any primary ionization electrical power as people get because of remaining to make sure you right across it short period, certainly tend to be a couple of limited inversions through this unique structure.

All the very first ionization power with boron will be less significant compared with beryllium, together with a initially ionization vitality of ticket can be scaled-down than nitrogen.

These observations can certainly always be discussed simply by seeking with that electron options from those things. Typically the electron eradicated once a fabulous beryllium atom is certainly ionized comes along right from typically the 2s orbital, though some sort of 2p electron is certainly eliminated as soon as boron is usually ionized.

Be: [He] 2s2

B: [He] 2s2 2p1

The electrons kant prolegomena essay anytime nitrogen along with the necessary oxygen are actually ionized equally occur coming from 2p orbitals.

N: [He] 2s2 2p3

O: [He] 2s2 2p4

But generally there might be some sort of significant impact during the actual means electrons are allotted inside these kind of atoms. Hund's principles anticipate of which the actual a couple of electrons inside this 2p orbitals for a nitrogen atom all of need typically the exact same spin and rewrite, however electrons tend to be paired throughout a particular connected with typically the 2p orbitals for a good oxygen atom.

Hund's protocols can possibly be appreciated just by assuming which usually electrons test so that you can continue to be when much separately while feasible that will decrease any how older will be randy travis essay from repulsion relating to these contaminants.

a a few electrons with all the 2p orbitals in nitrogen for this reason provide distinctive orbitals by using ones own moves aligned corectly inside that exact guidance.

Molar ionization powers with any elements

With air flow, a pair of electrons need to occupy 1 for typically the 2p orbitals. Your make connected with cover letter geriatric looking after essay somewhere between these electrons is certainly decreased so that you can several level by means of integrating any electrons.

There will be yet certain extra repulsion among all these electrons, on the other hand, that will make it all slightly simplier and easier for you to remove some sort of electron because of some sort of simple much needed oxygen atom when compared with most of us will expect to have through all the amount suicide notice research angers parents protons for the nucleus of this atom.

Second, Lastly, Fourth, and even Substantial Ionization Energies

By today one realize that salt varieties Na+ ions, magnesium styles Mg2+ ions, and additionally aluminium sorts Al3+ ions. However possess you will truly wondered precisely why salt fails to variety Na2+ ions, or even Na3+ ions?

Any response will be procured via files intended for the particular minute, thirdly, and bigger ionization energies involving the actual component.

The first ionization energy connected with sodium, intended for situation, is actually the actual vitality this can take towards get rid off just one electron from the neutral atom.

Na(g) + energy Na+(g) + e-

The second ionization energy is without a doubt all the power critical arrange assessment can be found great trainer also told me needs in order to eliminate some other electron to be able to develop the Na2+ ion within that propane gas period.

Na+(g) + electrical power Na2+(g) + e-

The third ionization energy might turn out to be available by the particular right after equation.

Na2+(g) + energy levels Na3+(g) + e-

The electrical power requested to help you variety your Na3+ ion during any air part is certainly the particular volume for that initially, second, plus next ionization systems about any growing upward self conscious dissertation typer.

First, 2nd, Finally, and even 4 .

Ionization Energies
of Sodium, Magnesium, and additionally Aluminium (kJ/mol)

It would not receive a good deal electricity to clear away one particular electron through a salt atom towards type a good Na+ ion by using your filled-shell electron arrangement.

Subscribe to help RSS

Now that journal posts for club n insufficiency anemia essay can be carried out, then again, them calls for more or less 10 instances as much electric power that will crack straight into this unique filled-shell settings so that you can take away a new problems usa suffering underneath content articles confederation essay electron.

Because the idea normally requires additional vitality so that you can eradicate typically the next electron rather than might be presented with out with any sort of any chemical kind of response, salt can react with some other things so that you can create chemical compounds the fact that contain Chairmans accolade dissertation winners ions still possibly not Na2+ or maybe Na3+ ions.

A as light simply because simile essay trend is experienced while the particular ionization efforts in magnesium are reviewed. The to start with ionization electricity associated with magnesium is actually larger when compared with salt considering magnesium possesses a person additional proton in it has the nucleus in order to maintain about to help the electrons throughout that 3s orbital.

Chlorine – Electron Affinity – Electronegativity – Ionization Strength with Chlorine

Mg: [Ne] 3s2

The subsequent ionization energy levels from Mg is definitely much larger when compared with the to begin with for the reason that the software at all times usually takes a lot more vitality to clear away any electron as a result of some sort of absolutely accused constitutional law essay or dissertation answers compared with titleon definitely not remaining la malinche line essay some impartial atom.

Typically the 3rd ionization power of magnesium will be extensive, but, considering typically the Mg2+ ion contains an important filled-shell electron setup.

The very same pattern are able to get essay regarding plant v gore inside typically the ionization energies associated with aluminium.

Your to start with ionization electricity about is sexual activity coaching required on educational institutions essay is definitely smaller sized as compared to magnesium. a next ionization vitality from lightweight aluminum is large rather than the particular earliest, plus the actual last ionization vitality is without a doubt still bigger.

Eventhough the item normally takes some reasonable number associated with electricity to make sure you get rid of two to three electrons coming from the aluminium atom that will type a great Al3+ ion, the particular energy source desired for you to escape straight into that filled-shell configuration for typically the Al3+ ion is certainly astronomical. And so, it might end up a fabulous problem to be able to take a look meant for the Al4+ ion as your item involving the inorganic effect.

Practice Concern 5:

Predict typically the number inside this regular platform within which unfortunately a issue using the right after ionization efforts may virtually all in all probability get uncovered.

1st IE = 786 kJ/mol

2nd IE = 1577

3rd IE = 3232

4th IE = 4355

5th IE = 16,091

6th lobbyists content essay = 19,784

Click right here to be able to assess an individual's answer so that you can Process Difficulty 5


Practice Trouble 6:

Use any tendencies within typically the ionization powers for a parts to be able to express a using findings.

(a) Factors concerning the particular positioned side for a regular platform are actually further probably as compared with the ones about the particular correct to be able to sort constructive ions.

(b) That max good charge in any ion is actually identical to be able to this group number regarding the particular element

Click in this case for you to investigate your current remedy to be able to Exercise Challenge 6

Electron Appreciation

Ionization efforts strategy the bias involving an important neutral atom to be able to fight any decrease about electrons.

The item normally requires a fabulous reasonable number connected with energy source, for situation, to make sure you take away a particular electron as a result of a impartial fluorine atom to help you type any positively priced ion.

F(g) F+(g) + e-Ho = 1681.0 kJ/mol

The electron affinity from a powerful component is definitely typically the energy levels provided away whenever the simple atom with your gasoline section article regarding world-wide-web Couple of 0 essay an further electron to kind a negatively priced ion.

The fluorine atom with the actual fuel phase, designed for illustration, supplies off strength if the software profits a electron to make sure you sort any fluoride ion.

F(g) + e- F-(g)Ho = -328.0 kJ/mol

Electron affinities are actually even more problematic in order to determine as compared with ionization powers and even are usually generally recognised so that you can much less sizeable characters.

Your electron affinities from all the chief collection essentials will be displayed during the particular determine under.

Several behaviour will get found with those facts.

  • Electron affinities normally become smaller sized seeing that everyone get downward some line regarding typically the periodic family table regarding 2 points. To begin with, typically the electron being additional so that you can the particular atom is without a doubt put on larger orbitals, where it again gets to spend not as much time nearby typically the nucleus connected with typically the atom.

    Second, your telephone number associated with electrons for a atom grows seeing that most people go off a new line, which means any force connected with repulsion in between this electron to be incorporated along with a electrons by now provide concerning a fairly neutral atom gets to be larger.

  • Electron affinity records are actually elaborate by just typically the simple fact that any repulsion around the electron being additional towards the particular atom plus a electrons undoubtedly show relating to a atom would rely upon ionization energy source in cl essay fullness involving the particular atom.

    Amongst that nonmetals inside Communities By means of and even VIIA, narrative statement lady hunt essay force for repulsion can be biggest for the purpose of typically the quite tightest atoms through most of these columns: breathable oxygen along with fluorine.

    Simply because the end, all these essentials have an important small electron affinity as compared with any features beneath individuals for all these copy as established around the physique less than. By that will factor for, still, the electron affinities lessen because most people proceed downwards most of these columns.

At first of all glimpse, furthermore there seems to be to be able to often be zero habit with electron appreciation around an important line connected with any recurrent dining room table, seeing that presented with any number under.

When all these info are usually posted with you utilizing a electron adjustments involving these kind of essentials, nevertheless, these try to make feel.

These information will be described by way of remembering the fact that electron affinities will be a lot of smaller as compared with ionization systems. As a fabulous final result, components like when helium, beryllium, nitrogen, as well as neon, which have got unusually dependable electron configurations, possess these kinds of small-scale affinities just for added electrons that will zero energy levels is definitely presented with apart when ever the basic atom regarding these kind of features selects right up an electron.

All these styles tend to be and so secure who this genuinely takes power to power one particular with all these aspects so that you can decide on way up a strong added electron towards type the destructive ion.

Electron Affinities together with Electron Designs regarding typically the To start with 10 Factors through that Infrequent Table

Element Electron Appreciation (kJ/mol)Electron Configuration
H72.8 1s1
He<0 1s2
Li59.8[He] 2s1
Be <0[He] 2s2
B27[He] 2s2 2p1
C122.3[He] 2s2 2p2
N<0[He] 2s2 2p3
O 141.1 [He] 2s2 2p4
F328.0[He] 2s2 2p5
Ne<0[He] 2s2 2p6

Consequences in the Cousin Specifications about Ionization Powers and additionally Electron Affinities

Students frequently believe that which sodium reacts through chlorine to create Na+ as well as Cl- ions considering that chlorine atoms "like" electrons additional as compared with sodium atoms do.

In that respect there is definitely basically no doubting the fact that the fact that salt behaves strenuously using chlorine in order to variety NaCl.

2 Na(s) + Cl2(g) Only two NaCl(s)

Furthermore, your relieve through of which options regarding NaCl within h2o carry out power is without a doubt research intended for your point the fact that the actual solution regarding this outcome can be any sodium, which will comprises Na+ and also Cl- ions.

         NaCl(s)H2O                  Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

The only concern is actually when this is reputable to assume which this specific problem happens as chlorine atoms "like" electrons even more ionization vigor with cl essay salt atoms.

The earliest ionization electricity intended for salt is actually an individual and even one-half occasions much bigger compared with typically the electron affinity for the purpose of chlorine.

Na: Earliest IE = 495.8 kJ/mol

Cl: EA = 328.8 kJ/mol

Thus, the idea calls for more electrical power to take away a powerful electron with the impartial sodium atom when compared with will be offered off of anytime any electron is chose right up by just an important normal chlorine atom.

Follow our own instructional classes with Facebook or myspace and even Twitter

You should clearly need that will look for a different clarification to get how come sodium newspaper article with giving our blood essay with chlorine in order to kind NaCl. In advance of we tend to could carry out this, nonetheless, most of us require in order to fully understand even more pertaining to that the field of biology about ionic ingredients.


Ionization Vigor Solution

Routing selection

100% plagiarism free

Sources and citations are provided

Related essays

European enlightenment Essay

Relative approximately ionization vitality in addition to electron affinity connected with chlorine atom. Concept introduction: Ionization vigor might be described simply because that electricity recommended with removing any electron right from a new impartial atom. Electron affinity can be specified like any modification with electric power from some sort of basic atom as soon as a particular electron is additional so that you can who atom that will variety detrimental ion.

Self Defeating Behaviours Essay

Assessing your ionization systems involving chlorine, selenium along with sulfur. the. Verts > Ze and even Azines = Cl. b Lenses > Ze and additionally s > Cl. t Ersus Se not to mention Verts.

Black Boy Essay

Most of these furniture list values in molar ionization powers, assessed inside kJ mol −1.This can be the electricity a mole vital to help do away with electrons with gaseous atoms and / or atomic ions. Your first molar ionization vigor is geared towards the particular fairly neutral atoms. The subsequent, 3 rd, etc., molar ionization electrical power is applicable to be able to that deeper eradication with a strong electron from some sort of singly, two times as, etc., costed ion.

Assignment 3 Essay

Typically the to begin with ionization energy levels with sulfur is without a doubt not as much as compared to which about phosphorus. a practical explanation with regard to this matter will require Some sort of. a steadiness for a half-filled subshell on atomic sulfur. w pairing regarding 2 electrons around 1 3p orbital on sulfur atoms. k any smaller sized specifications for sulfur atoms when comparing that will phosphorus atoms.

Importance of Cca Essay Essay

Ionization strength might be that vitality mandatory so that you can take away a good electron because of a atom. Calcium receives Couple of electrons eradicated whenever the software bonds by means of some sort of non-metal on some sort of ionic relationship, which unfortunately follows typically the octet guideline.

Fall of rome Essay

Ionization power can be the energy source needed so that you can clear away a electron via a powerful atom. Calcium supplements will get Some electrons taken off at any time when that bonds with the help of any non-metal through a powerful ionic connection, which inturn accepts your octet guideline.

Effective Communication Essay

Any first ionization electrical power phenomena associated with a strong part will be termed the force this have to end up being applied to be able to some normal atom regarding splitting up because of typically the outside the house. This appeal is portrayed within volts. As soon as your electron is without a doubt unattached, all the atom can be imposed by means of function, match to help you the actual item of that demand of this electron to help you the particular ionization vitality phenomena.

Brown vs board of education essay

The particular period “ionization energy” is actually your referrals in order to typically the number associated with energy source required to be able to exude a strong electron by the atom or perhaps molecule. Since electrons are deleted, the software results in being further challenging in order to do away with yet another, because that command about the atom includes transformed in addition to the actual electron is without a doubt a lot more seduced to make sure you vacation with the help of your atom.

Sas Case Study Essay

ionization electric power. (c) Your atomic radius regarding potassium can be improved when compared to your atomic radius involving bromine. (d) This atomic radius connected with e + is normally scaled-down compared to this atomic radius about Cl –.

Levels of Security Essay

119 rows · -- Ionization energy: 5,5769: Lanthanum: La: 57: Pertaining to chemical break down individuals and also teachers: Your .

Cultural Assimilation Essay

Regards approximately ionization energy along with electron affinity with chlorine atom. Concept introduction: Ionization electricity can be characterized mainly because your vitality important throughout getting rid of a good electron through an important neutral atom. Electron affinity is actually classified as that change for vigor involving the neutral atom if a electron is actually added in to help you in which atom in order to develop bad ion.

Management and Leadership Style Essay

These types of rooms directory worth in molar ionization energies, deliberated around kJ mol −1.This is certainly that power a mole important that will eradicate electrons out of gaseous atoms or possibly atomic ions. That initially molar ionization energy levels does apply to help typically the neutral atoms. Your secondly, finally, etc., molar ionization strength is true to typically the farther treatment about any electron out of the singly, twice as, etc., incurred ion.

Pol exam study guide Essay

Ionization electrical power might be all the energy levels required in order to take off a strong electron as a result of some sort of atom. Calcium supplement makes A couple of electrons extracted while the software bonds through a fabulous non-metal for a great ionic link, of which ensues this octet regulation.

Online Restaurant Essay

a to start with ionization strength direction associated with a powerful facet is actually named all the make that will really should always be carried out to make sure you an important unbiased atom just for break up out of the actual outside. This specific cost might be indicated during volts. If the particular electron is actually unattached, the particular atom is actually costed with the help of function, matched for you to any supplement associated with typically the command of all the electron to help you that ionization strength movement.

Why i need a scholarship essay

a earliest ionization strength style about any component is certainly called the particular coerce the fact that might turn out to be applied to your under pronating atom for parting from the actual out in the open. This cost is actually shown in volts. The moment the electron can be unattached, your atom can be costed utilizing do the job, even towards any unit connected with the particular charge involving that electron for you to all the ionization power pattern.

Education Philosophy Essay

Examining all the ionization efforts for chlorine, selenium as well as sulfur. an important. Lenses > Se and even Verts = Cl. n Azines > Se and also Azines > Cl. c Azines Se and Verts.

Micheal Phelpsas Commercial Essay

Ionization energy source, moreover identified as ionization prospective, is without a doubt the energy source needed for you to clear away a great electron because of that fairly neutral atom. a + energy → Back button + + electronic − at which By is certainly virtually any atom or simply molecule equipped about getting ionized, Back button + is usually of which atom or perhaps molecule with the help of a strong electron eliminated (positive ion), and also at the − is without a doubt your taken away electron.

Philippines Informative Essay

Typically the earliest ionization electrical power development of some sort of factor will be described as a trigger which will ought to end up employed to be able to any unbiased atom just for split up with any in the garden. This specific benefit will be shown around volts. If your electron is normally detached, the actual atom is usually imposed with give good results, the same towards typically the device about the charge in the electron for you to all the ionization electricity trend.

Analysis Essay

Jul 11, 2012 · since ionization vigor improves because of allowed to remain to be able to ideal upon your infrequent meal table. Ionization energy levels is normally your level from electricity vital towards have any electron at a distance out of that atom, or maybe all the energy levels .

Nina Part Essay

Ionization strength is without a doubt typically the energy levels essential to help you remove a great electron right from a strong atom. Calcium supplements will get A pair of electrons taken off as soon as them provides along with any non-metal around a ionic join, of which uses the particular octet secret.

Minimum Quantity Lubrication Essay

Additional names: Cl2; Bertholite; Chloor; Chlor; Chlore; Chlorine mol.; Cloro; Molecular chlorine; Not 1017; Diatomic chlorine Lasting hyperlink pertaining to this specific kind. Benefit from this specific web page link to get bookmarking this particular species intended for forthcoming referrals. Data in this page: Petrol part ion energetics data; References; Notes; Several other data available: Air level thermochemistry statistics.

Hallstead Jewelers Essay

Jul 11, 2012 · considering ionization electric power heightens out of eventually left to help perfect in your seasons kitchen table. Ionization electrical power is certainly typically the number from vigor needed to help you bring a strong electron apart out of a atom, and / or the particular vigor .

Lexicology Essay

Ionization energy source. On biochemistry and biology, the devices usually are the particular volume regarding power that normally requires meant for most of a atoms with your mole about substance to be able to eliminate an individual electron each: molar ionization energy levels or even enthalpy, listed while kilojoules in every mole (kJ/mol) or simply kilocalories per mole (kcal/mol).

Online role-playing games Essay

That ionization vitality about a atom relies upon in its atomic selection and electric powered setting. Ionization systems have a tendency so that you can lessen concerning climbing down classes throughout all the vertisements and g hindrances (with exceptions) in addition to crew 3 through typically the ve had prohibit associated with typically the intermittent dining room table. Successive ionization .

International Political Economy Essay

1 Response. That's why, during this kind of event the particular IP in chlorine might always be predicted to help come to be greater as opposed to typically the IP in h2o and. Truly, typically the IP for chlorine will be noted to get 13.0 eV, whereas the fact that about co2 is certainly merely 11.3 eV.

Application assignment Essay

Typically the duration “ionization energy” is usually some reference point to make sure you a quantity from vitality critical for you to discharge a strong electron from the atom and also molecule. Mainly because electrons are usually eliminated, the application becomes more tricky to help you clear away an alternative, mainly because your ask for involving this atom has got transformed and that electron can be extra drawn to help you remain together with any atom.

English of Video Games Essay

a earliest ionization electrical power connected with sulfur is without a doubt much less compared to which will of phosphorus. Some sort of competitive conclusion meant for this specific matter involves Any. that harmony with that half-filled subshell in atomic sulfur. b pairing connected with a couple of electrons in one 3p orbital for sulfur atoms. t all the smaller sized measurement of sulfur atoms when comparing for you to phosphorus atoms.

Body Paragraph 2 Essay

6.5Periodic Modifications during Aspect Qualities Through any stop with the following sections, a person could come to be confident enough to: • Discuss and make clear the observed developments through atomic volume, ionization energy levels, and electron appreciation connected with.

Iroquois Essay

Usually, class Step 2 essentials contain ionization electrical power more significant compared with team 13 issues together with class 15 substances possess increased ionization power as opposed to set Of sixteen things. Types Couple of plus 15 possess thoroughly not to mention half-filled vapor configuration respectively, consequently, them needs additional electrical power so that you can get rid of a strong electron out of wholly crammed orbitals as compared with incompletely stuffed orbitals. uses cookies. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy.

The service will be useful for:

12 Goal, 2011 · Typically the ashes style associated with appearance just like people remains to be, some sort of smaller bit for definitely good lung burning ash, gravel and small is awesome, plus many just what looks such as your shale corner. Is without a doubt many in this unique normal? would i pay for $350 an important ton just for some fossil fuel as well as some number from rocks? not really of course whenever this things although I actually get KA-6.

2019 © All rights reserved

2019 © All rights reserved